Wednesday, January 30, 2013

Big 10 Cities HDD (Updated 1/30)

Now that January 2013 is almost in the books, here is the promised update on total accumulated heating degree days (HDD) for all cities in the Big 10. Heating/cooling degree days are based off a base temperature of 65°F, which is simply the mean of the maximum and minimum temperature for a day. Thus, a maximum temperature of 30°F and a minimum temperature of 0°F would yield a daily average temperature of 15°F and 65-15 = 50 HDD.

There were two changes to the list with the addition of January data. Madison, WI (University of Wisconsin-Madison) passed up Lincoln, NE (University of Nebraska-Lincoln) for second place as predicted and West Lafayette, IN (Purdue) scratched ahead of Champaign, IL (University of Illinois) . Minneapolis (University of Minnesota-Twin Cities) is the winner by a safe margin (as expected) and the top 3 of the list have greatly outpaced the bottom two (Indiana University and The Ohio State University). Here are the updated standings:

Minneapolis, MN 2652
Madison, WI 2324
Lincoln, NE 2268
Iowa City, IA 2177
East Lansing, MI 2083
Ann Arbor, MI 2003
Evanston, IL 1986
State College, PA 1938
West Lafayette, IN 1931
Champaign, IL 1916
Bloomington, IN 1759
Columbus, OH 1748

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Western U.S. Drought Update with Nebraska Concerns

The attached map shows the October 1, 2012-Janaury 24, 2013 Percent of Normal precipitation for the western U.S..  

The lack of snow continues to heighten concern across much of the West. While there is plenty of time to make up ground, last year’s low snow pack across the central and southern Rockies in particular has several interests watching closely to see if a strong finish to winter can bring about more promising stream flow forecasts for the dry season come summer

This is critical information, since the bulk of precipitation in our western states comes during the winter and a deep snow pack is necessary to recharge the lakes and reservoirs in the Spring as well as to supply water for the major rivers that are ultimately used for irrigation.

Of particular concern to us in Nebraska is the source region for the water that comes into the North and the South Platte Rivers.  Precipitation has been well below normal for the Colorado and Wyoming basins that feed water into the Platte River. This is NOT good news for us in Nebraska. Note that much of  Colorado  has only received 50-69% of normal precipitation this winter with similar conditions in SE Wyoming (with one SE Wyoming basin only receiving 49% of normal precipitation).  Winter is far from over, but the forecast out for the next two weeks (see the second map below) indicates very little change in the weather pattern, meaning a continuation of below normal precipitation for the Colorado and Wyoming regions.  The exception to this is the Pacific Northwest which appears to have, for the most part, near normal to above normal precipitation since October 1.






Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Year 2012 Global Temperature Anomalies

From NCDC/NOAA:  Year 2012 Climate Summary

Global Temperatures

2012 marks the 36th consecutive year (since 1976) that the annual temperature was above the long-term average. Currently, the warmest year on record is 2010, which was 0.66°C (1.19°F) above average. Including 2012, all 12 years to date in the 21st century (2001–2012) rank among the 14 warmest in the 133-year period of record. Only one year during the 20th century—1998—was warmer than 2012.  Link to video summarizing the global climate of 2012.

The year 2012 was the 10th warmest year since records began in 1880. The annually-averaged temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was 0.57°C (1.03°F) above the 20th century average. Record to near-record warm land surface temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere from April to September and overall warmer-than-average ocean surface temperatures made the first 11 months of the year the eighth warmest January–November on record. However, extreme cold across much of the Northern Hemisphere land during December helped lower the year-to-date temperature departure from average by 0.02°C (0.04°F) compared with the previous month.


Global Highlights

  • The year 2012 was the 10th warmest year since records began in 1880. The annual global combined land and ocean surface temperature was 0.57°C (1.03°F) above the 20th century average of 13.9°C (57.0°F). This marks the 36th consecutive year (since 1976) that the yearly global temperature was above average. Currently, the warmest year on record is 2010, which was 0.66°C (1.19°F) above average. Including 2012, all 12 years to date in the 21st century (2001–2012) rank among the 14 warmest in the 133-year period of record. Only one year during the 20th century—1998—was warmer than 2012.

  • Separately, the 2012 global average land surface temperature was 0.90°C (1.62°F) above the 20th century average of 8.5°C (47.3°F) and ranked as the seventh warmest year on record.

  • La Niña, which is defined by cooler-than-normal waters in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific Ocean that affect weather patterns around the globe, was present during the first three months of 2012. The weak-to-moderate La Niña dissipated in the spring and was replaced by ENSO-neutral conditions for the remainder of the year. When compared to previous La Niña years, the 2012 global surface temperature was the warmest observed during such a year; 2011 was the previous warmest La Niña year on record.

  • The 2012 global average ocean temperature was 0.45°C (0.81°F) above the 20th century average of 16.1°C (60.9°F) and ranked as the 10th warmest year on record. It was also the warmest year on record among all La Niña years. The three warmest annual ocean surface temperatures occurred in 2003, 1998, and 2010—all warm phase El Niño years.

  • Following the two wettest years on record (2010 and 2011), 2012 saw near average precipitation on balance across the globe. However, as ia typical, precipitation varied greatly from region to region.


Tuesday, January 15, 2013

December 2012 Global Temperature Anomalies

December 2012 Global Temperature Anomalies

It was a month of extreme contrasts across the Northern Hemisphere with extremely cold air in Alaska and NW Canada as well as central Asia and at the same time well above normal temperatures across eastern North America..  The geographic area of above normal temperatures exceed the area of below normal temperatures for another month.  The global data set extends from 1880-2012 (133 years)

Global Highlights (from NOAA/NCDC):
  • The average combined global land and ocean surface temperature for December 2012 was the 18th warmest December since records began in 1880, at 0.41°C (0.74°F) above the 20th century average of 12.2°C (54.0°F).

  • The globally-averaged land surface temperature for December 2012 was the 49thwarmest December on record, at 0.21°C (0.38°F) above average. The globally-averaged ocean surface temperature was the sixth warmest December on record, at 0.47°C (0.85°F) above average.

  • The average combined global land and ocean surface temperature for January–December 2012 was the 10th warmest such period on record, at 0.57°C (1.03°F) above the 20th century average.  Note:   See the map below>>>>>>>


Monday, January 14, 2013

Winter 2012-13 Snow Drought (As of Jan. 14)

The  Snowfall Season for Lincoln, NE, is defined as the period from October 1- May 1.

The 2012-13 Snowfall Season to date (October 1, 2012 - January 14, 2013) has seen only 5.1 inches of snowfall in Lincoln, NE.  Last year at this time, Lincoln had only received a Snowfall Season total of 4.9 inches.

The lack of snowfall last winter and so far this winter is in stark contrast to the Winter of 2009-2010.  As of January 14, 2010, Lincoln had received  31.2 inches of snowfall and the city was buried under almost two feet of snow with temperatures that would not rise above freezing to melt the snow-pack (SEE PHOTO BELOW).

October 1, 2012 - January 14, 2013 Lincoln Snowfall:  5.1 inches of snowfall
October 1, 2011 - January 14, 2012 Lincoln Snowfall:  4.9 inches of snowfall
October 1, 2009 - January 14, 2010 Lincoln Snowfall:  31.2 inches of snowfall

Several other recent winters have also seen a lack of snowfall (also known as a "snow drought") for this time period, for example:

October 1, 2001 - January 14, 2002 Lincoln Snowfall:  1.9 inches of snowfall
October 1, 2002 - January 14, 2003 Lincoln Snowfall:  1.2 inches of snowfall
October 1, 1999 - January 14, 2000 Lincoln Snowfall:  3.8 inches of snowfall

LINK: January 2010 Snowfall Photos
 

There are two photos below:  January 14, 2010 and January 14, 2013


January 14, 2010:  Deep snow along the side of a Lincoln, NE residential road

January 14, 2013:  Same view as above.  The scene is slightly different since a townhouse has been added to the left of the red car blocking a building seen in the above photo. And the hill in the distance has been removed.


Thursday, January 10, 2013

2012: 2nd Most Extreme Year on Record for the U.S.

From NCDC:

2012 was the second most extreme year on record for the contiguous U.S.

2012 was a historic year for extreme weather that included drought, wildfires, hurricanes and storms; however, tornado activity was below average.

The U.S. Climate Extremes Index indicated that 2012 was the second most extreme year on record for the nation. The index, which evaluates extremes in temperature and precipitation, as well as landfalling tropical cyclones, was nearly twice the average value and second only to 1998. To date, 2012 has seen 11 disasters that have reached the $1 billion threshold in losses, to include Sandy, Isaac, and tornado outbreaks experienced in the Great Plains, Texas and Southeast/Ohio Valley.

Annual Extremes
Several locations throughout the United States experienced temperature and precipitation extremes in 2012. Most striking was the number of locations across the country that broke their average annual temperature record. These records were primarily driven by extremely warm maximum day time temperatures or daily highs, especially during the spring and summer months. More than a dozen of these locations also experienced their driest year on record. In those areas, the combination of the extreme warm and dry period resulted in a drought comparable to the drought episodes of the 1950s.


December 2012 U.S. Climate Summary

December 2012 Statewide Climate Summary

Nebraska:  Near normal temperatures and precipitation in December 2012

 National Overview from NCDC:  (Note two maps are located at the bottom of this post)
  • Climate Highlights — December
  • The average contiguous U.S. temperature for December was 36.4°F, 3.4°F above the 20th century long-term average, and the 10th warmest December on record.
  • Warmer-than-average conditions were present for much of the U.S. east of the Rockies. Twenty states had monthly temperatures that ranked among the ten warmest on record. Near-average conditions were present for the Northern Plains and much of the West. The Pacific Northwest was slightly warmer than average.
  • The nationally-average precipitation for December was 2.74 inches, which was 0.51 inch above average and the 20th wettest December on record.
  • Wetter-than-average conditions were present for the interior West, where Nevada and Utah both had a top ten wet month. The Northeast and parts of the Ohio Valley had a wetter-than-average December. Maine, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania also had a top ten wet month. The Southern Plains were drier than average during December.
  • According to the January 1st, 2013 U.S. Drought Monitor report, 61.1 percent of the contiguous U.S. was experiencing moderate-to-exceptional drought, smaller than the 62.7 percent at the end of November. Drought conditions improved in parts of the Southeast, Northwest, and northern California and Nevada. Drought conditions worsened in parts of the Southwest and Southern Plains.
  • Several large snow storms traversed the nation during December causing the monthly average snow cover extent to be above average. According to data from the Rutgers Global Snow Lab, the monthly average snow extent of 1.3 million square miles (3.2 million square km) was 100,800 square miles (261,100 square km) above the 1981-2010 average and the 14th largest monthly snow cover extent in the 47-year period of record.

 

Wednesday, January 9, 2013

2012 Warmest Year on Record for the U.S.

Headlines:
Year 2012 was the warmest on record for the U.S.
Year 2012 was the warmest on record for Nebraska 
Year 2012 was the driest on record for Nebraska

The statewide rankings are illustrated in the two maps posted below. There are 118 years of data (1895-2012) in the data archives.

All of the conterminous 48 states had above normal temperatures for 2012, and 19 states had their warmest year on record. A ranking of 118 means 118th coldest out of 118 years or warmest on record.

Nebraska and Wyoming had their driest years on record.

The NCDC Summary is included below the maps.


From NCDC:

2012 was warmest year on record for the contiguous U.S.

Brief summary:  2012 was a historic year for extreme weather that included drought, wildfires, hurricanes and storms; however, tornado activity was below average.  2012 marked the warmest year on record for the contiguous United States with the year consisting of a record warm spring, second warmest summer, fourth warmest winter and a warmer-than-average autumn. The average temperature for 2012 was 55.3°F, 3.2°F above the 20th century average, and 1.0°F above 1998, the previous warmest year. The average precipitation total for the contiguous U.S. for 2012 was 26.57 inches, 2.57 inches below average, making it the 15th driest year on record for the nation. At its peak in July, the drought of 2012 engulfed 61 percent of the nation with the Mountain West, Great Plains, and Midwest experiencing the most intense drought conditions. The dry conditions proved ideal for wildfires in the West, charring 9.2 million acres — the third highest on record.


Detailed summary:  In 2012, the contiguous United States (CONUS) average annual temperature of 55.3°F was 3.3°F above the 20th century average, and was the warmest year in the 1895-2012 period of record for the nation. The 2012 annual temperature was 1.0°F warmer than the previous record warm year of 1998. Since 1895, the CONUS has observed a long-term temperature increase of about 0.13°F per decade. Precipitation averaged across the CONUS in 2012 was 26.57 inches, which is 2.57 inches below the 20th century average. Precipitation totals in 2012 ranked as the 15th driest year on record. Over the 118-year period of record, precipitation across the CONUS has increased at a rate of about 0.16 inch per decade. On a statewide and seasonal level, 2012 was a year of both temperature and precipitation extremes for the United States. Each state in the CONUS had annual temperatures which were above average. Nineteen states, stretching from Utah to Massachusetts, had annual temperatures which were record warm. An additional 26 states had one of their 10 warmest years. Only Georgia (11th warmest year), Oregon (12th warmest), and Washington (30th warmest) had annual temperatures that were not among the ten warmest in their respective period of records. A list of the annual temperatures for each of the lower-48 states is available here. Numerous cities and towns were also record warm during 2012 and a select list of those locations is available here. Each state in the CONUS, except Washington, had at least one location experience its warmest year on record. One notable warmest year record occurred in Central Park, in New York City, which has a period of record dating back 136 years.
Much of the CONUS was drier than average for the year. Below-average precipitation totals stretched from the Intermountain West, through the Great Plains, into the Midwest and Southeast. Nebraska and Wyoming were both record dry in 2012. Nebraska’s annual precipitation total of 13.04 inches was 9.78 inches below average, and Wyoming’s annual precipitation total of 8.08 inches was 5.09 inches below average. New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Arkansas, Georgia, and Delaware had a top ten dry year. The large area of dry conditions in 2012 resulted in a very large footprint of drought conditions, which peaked in July with about 61 percent of the CONUS in moderate-to-exceptional drought, according to the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The footprint of drought during 2012 roughly equaled the drought of the 1950s which peaked at approximately 60 percent. Wetter-than-average conditions were present for the Northwest, where Washington had its fifth wettest year on record. Washington’s statewide precipitation total of 47.24 inches was 10.40 inches above average. Wetter-than-average conditions were also present across parts of the Gulf Coast and Northeast.

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Year 2012 Climate Summary for Lincoln, NE


GRAPH:  Daily high and low temperatures compared to normal. The Red Line is the normal high and the Blue Line is the normal low.  The top of each vertical bar is the high for the day and the bottom of each vertical bar is the low for the day.All data in this graph are from the National Weather Service and HPRCC data archives.

Data archive for Lincoln, NE, = 126years (1887-2012)

Top ranked driest years (total precipitation in inches):
Rank  Precip.  Year
  1    13.94  1936
  2    14.81  1890
  3    15.94  1895
  4    16.14  1894
  5    17.23  1934
  6    17.55  1953
  7    17.89  1976
  8    18.17  1955
  9    18.37  1988
 10    18.52  1887
 11    19.14  2012
.... 
Top ranked warmest years (temperature in deg. F)
Rank  Temperature  Year
  1    55.7     1934,1931
  3    55.5     1921
  4    55.2     1938,1939
  6    54.7     2012
  7    54.3     1933
  8    54.2     1987
  9    54.0     1953
 10    53.8     2006
...
Top ranked years with the least number of days with precipitation.
Days with 0.01 inches of precipitation or greater.
Rank  Days  Year  
  1    62   2012,1910
  3    66   1976
  4    69   1988
  5    70   1933
  6    71   1955
  7    73   1943,1974   
  9    74   1936
 10    75   1953
...
Top ranked years for least number of days with temperature 0F or colder
Rank  Days  Ending Date
  1    0   1987,1931
  3    2   2006,1953,1921
  6    3   2012,1992,1941,1928,1908
  11   4   1958,1934,1896
...
Top ranked years for longest snow-free season (data period 1948-2012)Rank  Days  Year
  1    309  2012
  2    295  2004
  3    284  2006
  4    281  2001
  5    279  2005
  6    272  1963
  7    271  2008,1998
  9    270  1989
  10   266  2010

_______________________________________________________________
 
NWS Omaha/Valley Summary:
...2012 YEARLY CLIMATE SUMMARY FOR LINCOLN...

THE CALENDAR YEAR 2012 WAS THE 6TH WARMEST YEAR ON RECORD IN
LINCOLN...CARRIED BY AN EXCEPTIONALLY WARM SPRING.  THE AVERAGE
TEMPERATURE OF 54.7 FELL 1.0 DEGREES COOLER THAN THE RECORD OF 55.7
SET IN 1931 AND 1934.  MARCH WAS THE RECORD WARMEST...AS WAS THE
PERIOD OF DECEMBER THROUGH MAY (WINTER/SPRING) AND THE PERIOD OF
MARCH THROUGH AUGUST (SPRING/SUMMER).  IN ADDITION...2012 WAS A DRY
YEAR IN LINCOLN... WITH 19.14 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION AS THE 11TH
DRIEST YEAR ON RECORD.  JULY WAS THE 2ND DRIEST ON RECORD WITH JUST
0.33 INCHES OF RAIN...AUGUST WAS THE 2ND DRIEST ON RECORD...AND
JANUARY WAS THE 15TH DRIEST ON RECORD.  THE SUMMER MONTHS OF JUNE
THROUGH AUGUST WERE THE 4TH DRIEST ON RECORD...AND THE PERIOD OF
JUNE THROUGH NOVEMBER (SUMMER/FALL) WAS THE 3RD DRIEST ON RECORD.

THE YEAR BEGAN WITH MILD WEATHER ACROSS THE REGION CONTINUING FROM
LATE DECEMBER 2011...WITH A LOW SNOWPACK AND PERSISTENT WEATHER
PATTERNS COMBINING TO MAKE JANUARY WARMER THAN NORMAL.  THE HIGH OF
70 DEGREES ON THE 30TH WAS A DAILY RECORD HIGH IN ADDITION TO BEING
THE WARMEST TEMPERATURE OF THE MONTH...AND RECORD WARM HIGHS ALSO
WERE SET ON THE 4TH AND 5TH.  THE JANUARY AVERAGE MAXIMUM
TEMPERATURE WAS THE 10TH WARMEST ON RECORD. THE SCANT 0.16 INCHES OF
PRECIPITATION FELL AS TWO VERY LIGHT SNOW EVENTS...MAKING THIS THE
15TH DRIEST JANUARY ON RECORD IN LINCOLN.

THE MILD WINTER CONTINUED INTO FEBRUARY...WITH A SWING TO WETTER
CONDITIONS AS FEBRUARY WAS THE 10TH WETTEST ON RECORD.  MUCH OF THE
MONTH`S PRECIPITATION FELL ON THE 3RD AND 4TH...AS A SIGNIFICANT
SNOW STORM MOVED ACROSS THE AREA. RECORD SNOWFALL AND PRECIPITATION
AMOUNTS WERE SET ON THE 4TH...WITH 11.1 INCHES OF SNOW AND 1.05
INCHES OF LIQUID.  THAT DAILY SNOWFALL ALSO WAS THE HIGHEST ONE-
DAY SNOW TOTAL IN THE LINCOLN AREA SINCE RECORDS BEGIN IN 1948. THE
COLDEST TEMPERATURES OF THE WINTER OF 2011-12 FELL ON THE 11TH AND
12TH...WITH A LOW OF -5 ON THE 12TH.  MEANWHILE...ONLY FOUR DAYS IN
FEBRUARY SAW DAILY MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES BELOW FREEZING...AND THE
LAST OF THESE WAS ON THE 12TH.  THE FINAL SNOWFALL OF THE WINTER OF
2011-12 FELL ON THE 12TH TO 13TH...WITH 1.2 INCHES ON THE TWO DAYS.
WITH A SHIFT TO WARMER WEATHER FOR THE REST OF THE MONTH...THE FIRST
THUNDERSTORMS OF THE YEAR OCCURRED ON THE 28TH...WITH AN ADDITIONAL
0.32 INCHES OF RAIN.

FOR THE WINTER MONTHS OF DECEMBER THROUGH FEBRUARY...LINCOLN WAS
MUCH WARMER AND MUCH WETTER THAN NORMAL.  THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF
29.9 DEGREES WAS 3.1 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL AND THE 19TH WARMEST
WINTER ON RECORD.  DUE LARGELY TO SEVERAL BOUTS OF HEAVY RAIN AND
ONE MAJOR SNOW EVENT...THE PRECIPITATION TOTAL OF 3.84 INCHES WAS
1.48 INCHES ABOVE NORMAL AND THE 18TH WETTEST ON RECORD.  FOR THE
WINTER OF 2011-12...18.8 INCHES OF SNOW FELL...WHICH IS WELL BELOW
THE NORMAL OF 25.9 INCHES.  OVER HALF OF THE TOTAL SNOW FELL IN JUST
ONE DAY.

MARCH WAS SIMPLY A MONTH OF SUPERLATIVES...WITH UNPRECEDENTED WARMTH
ACROSS MUCH OF THE US CENTERED ON THE CENTRAL PLAINS.  SIX RECORD
DAILY WARM MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES WERE SET...INCLUDING
SEVERAL READINGS THAT WERE THE EARLIEST TO REACH THOSE
THRESHOLDS...AS WELL AS A TIE FOR THE WARMEST MARCH DAILY HIGH
TEMPERATURE ON RECORD.  THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 55.0 DEGREES WAS
14.9 DEGREES ABOVE NORMAL AND 1.6 DEGREES ABOVE THE PREVIOUS AVERAGE
TEMPERATURE RECORD OF 53.4 DEGREES SET IN 1910.  MARCH HAD THE
HIGHEST NUMBER OF DAYS WITH MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES EXCEEDING THE 70
AND 80 DEGREE THRESHOLDS...AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES EXCEEDING THE
32...40...50...AND 60 DEGREE TEMPERATURE THRESHOLDS.  PRECIPITATION
RETURNED TO BELOW NORMAL TOTALS IN MARCH.

THOUGH OVERSHADOWED BY THE EXTREME WARMTH IN MARCH AND ONLY SLIGHTLY
WARMER THAN THAT MONTH...APRIL ALSO WAS VERY WARM...AS THE 10TH
WARMEST APRIL ON RECORD.  THE LAST FREEZE OF THE SEASON OCCURED ON
APRIL 23...WHICH WAS JUST TWO DAYS LATER THAN AVERAGE.
HOWEVER...WITH THE EARLY START TO THE GROWING SEASON IN MARCH...THE
IMPACT OF THIS FREEZE WAS STILL MUCH LIKE A LATE FREEZE...WITH SOME
PLANT AND CROP DAMAGE.  THUNDERSTORMS WERE RECORDED ON SIX DAYS IN
APRIL.  A SEVERE WEATHER OUTBREAK ON THE 14TH BROUGHT SMALL HAIL AND
LOCAL FLOODING TO LINCOLN.  THE HIGHEST ONE-DAY RAINFALL OF THE YEAR
OCCURRED ON THE 14TH...WITH 2.75 INCHES...WHICH ALSO WAS A DAILY
RAINFALL RECORD.  APRIL WAS THE LAST MONTH UNTIL DECEMBER WITH ABOVE
NORMAL PRECIPITATION.

WARM WEATHER CONTINUED THROUGH MAY...AS IT WAS THE 11TH WARMEST ON
RECORD...WITH ANOTHER RECORD WARM TEMPRATURE SET LATE IN THE MONTH.
STORMY WEATHER DOMINATED THE EARLY AND LATE PARTS OF THE MONTH...BUT
EVEN SO...PRECIPITATION FELL BELOW NORMAL.  THERE WERE 8 DAYS WITH
THUNDERSTORMS RECORDED AT LINCOLN AIRPORT BUT ONLY 6 OF THOSE DAYS WITH RAIN.
 ONE OF THOSE ON THE 19TH BROUGHT SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS TO
LINCOLN...WITH A 66 MPH GUST MEASURED AT THE AIRPORT THAT TIES THE
HIGHEST WIND GUST OF THE YEAR.

FOR THE SPRING SEASON OF MARCH THROUGH MAY...THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE
BLASTED AWAY THE PREVIOUS RECORD FOR THE WARMEST SPRING.  THE MARCH-
APRIL-MAY AVERAGE TEMPERATURE WAS 59.3 DEGREES...BREAKING THE
PREVIOUS RECORD OF 56.1 DEGREES SET IN 1977.  ALSO...THE COMBINED
WINTER AND SPRING SEASONS OF DECEMBER THROUGH MAY ALSO SET THE
RECORD FOR WARMEST...WITH AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 44.8 DEGREES
THAT BROKE THE RECORD OF 44.0 DEGREES SET IN 1992.  SPRING
PRECIPITATION WAS SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL AT 7.38 INCHES...WHICH IS
1.55 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.

WARM WEATHER CONTINUED THROUGH JUNE...WHICH WAS THE 22ND WARMEST ON
RECORD.  JUNE SAW 13 DAYS AT OR ABOVE 90 DEGREES...WELL ABOVE THE
NORMAL 8 DAYS...AND ONLY THE 1ST SAW A MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE BELOW 70
DEGREES.  DESPITE THE PERSISTENT HEAT...NO DAILY TEMPERATURE RECORDS
WERE SET IN JUNE. PRECIPITATION WAS SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL IN
JUNE...WITH MOST OF THE RAIN FALLING IN THREE EVENTS AND THE LAST OF
THESE OCCURRING ON THE 23RD.  SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS ON THE 14TH AND
15TH BROUGHT 2.71 INCHES OF RAIN...ALONG WITH WINDS GUSTING TO 63
MPH.

THE WARM YEAR OF 2012 BARRELED RIGHT THROUGH JULY. THE AVERAGE
TEMPERATURE OF 83.1 DEGREES WAS THE 7TH WARMEST JULY ON
RECORD...WHILE THE 0.33 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION IN JULY WAS THE 2ND
DRIEST ON RECORD.  THAT 0.33 INCHES OF RAIN FELL ON THE 25TH AND
26TH. A 15-DAY STREAK OF DAYS ENDING ON THE 26TH WITH TEMPERATURES
AT OR ABOVE 95 DEGREES WAS THE 4TH LONGEST ON RECORD...AND ALSO FELL
AS THE 9TH LONGEST STREAK OF TEMPERATURES AT OR ABOVE 90 DEGREES.
FIVE CONSECUTIVE DAYS OF TEMPERATURES AT OR ABOVE 100 DEGREES ENDED
ON THE 25TH AND WAS THE 10TH LONGEST STREAK OF 100+ DEGREE DAYS AS
WELL AS THE 3RD LONGEST STREAK OF DAYS WITH TEMPERATURES AT OR ABOVE
104 DEGREES.  THE HOTTEST TEMPERATURE OF THE YEAR OCCURRED ON THE
22ND...AT 105 DEGREES.  OVERALL...11 DAYS IN JULY REACHED 100
DEGREES OR HOTTER...WHICH IS THE MOST SINCE 1980.  THE COMBINATION
OF EXTREME HEAT AND EXTREME DRYNESS ALLOWED EXTREME DROUGHT TO
SPREAD QUICKLY INTO THE LINCOLN AREA IN JULY.

DRY WEATHER LINGERED IN AUGUST...THOUGH TEMPERATURES FELL BACK TO
READINGS SLIGHTLY BELOW NORMAL.  WITH 0.30 INCHES OF RAIN...AUGUST
WAS THE 2ND DRIEST ON RECORD.  THE TWO MONTH PERIOD OF JULY THROUGH
AUGUST WAS THE DRIEST ON RECORD...WITH JUST 0.63 INCHES OF RAIN.
WHILE SOME HOT PERIODS HIT IN AUGUST...PARTICULARLY EARLY AND LATE
IN THE MONTH...COOL TEMPERATURES WERE DOMINANT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE
MONTH.  RECORD COLD MINIMUM TEMPERATURES WERE SET ON THE 16TH
THROUGH THE 18TH.

FOR THE SUMMER SEASON OF JUNE THROUGH AUGUST...2012 WAS VERY WARM
AND VERY DRY.  THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 77.6 DEGREES WAS THE 16TH
WARMEST SUMMER ON RECORD...WHILE THE PRECIPITATION TOTAL OF 4.20
INCHES WAS THE 4TH DRIEST ON RECORD.  THE SPRING AND SUMMER MONTHS
(MARCH THROUGH AUGUST) WERE THE WARMEST ON RECORD IN LINCOLN...WITH
AN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE OF 68.5 DEGREES...AND THE 10TH DRIEST ON
RECORD...WITH 11.58 INCHES OF RAIN.

SEPTEMBER BROUGHT MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES THAT WERE ABOVE NORMAL...AND
MINIMUM TEMPERATURES THAT WERE WELL BELOW NORMAL...FOR AN AVERAGE
TEMPERATURE THAT WAS NEAR NORMAL.  A HIGH OF 102 ON THE 4TH WAS A
DAILY RECORD AND THE FIRST SEPTEMBER HIGH OF 100 DEGREES OR MORE
SINCE 2005.  DRY CONDITIONS CONTINUED IN LINCOLN...WITH RAIN FALLING
IN JUST TWO EVENTS. THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL RAIN OF THE MONTH FELL ON
THE 12TH TO 13TH...WITH 1.71 INCHES OF STEADY RAIN ACCOMPANIED BY
OCCASIONAL THUNDER THAT WAS ALMOST ALL OF THE MONTHLY RAIN TOTAL.
AN EARLY FREEZE ARRIVED ON THE 23RD...WITH A LOW OF 32 DEGREES.
THIS WAS THE 7TH EARLIEST FREEZE ON RECORD IN LINCOLN...12 DAYS
EARLIER THAN THE 1981-2010 AVERAGE...AND THE EARLIEST SINCE 1999.

OCTOBER BROUGHT A BREAK FROM THE HEAT...WITH TEMPERATURES AVERAGING
COOLER THAN NORMAL AND WITH NEAR NORMAL PRECIPITATION.  LOWS FELL
AT OR BELOW FREEZING 11 TIMES IN OCTOBER...WHICH IS THE HIGHEST SINCE
2006.  RAIN FELL ON 7 DAYS IN OCTOBER...INCLUDING 5 DAYS WITH
THUNDER...THOUGH THE TOTAL PRECIPITATION WAS 0.05 INCHES BELOW
NORMAL.  WITH THE DRY AND COOLER WEATHER...THE AVERAGE MINIMUM
TEMPERATURE FOR SEPTEMBER THROUGH OCTOBER WAS THE COOLEST ON RECORD
IN LINCOLN.

WARMER WEATHER RETURNED IN NOVEMBER...THOUGH DRY WEATHER PERSISTED.
JUST 0.15 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION FELL IN NOVEMBER...AND THAT FELL
IN JUST TWO DAYS...THE 4TH AND THE 10TH.  SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS
ON THE 10TH WERE FOLLOWED BY A TRACE OF FREEZING PRECIPITATION ON THE 11TH.
ANOTHER RECORD WARM TEMPERATURE WAS SET ON THE 21ST...THE DAY BEFORE
THANKSGIVING...IN THE MIDST OF A MID-MONTH WARM SPELL.

THE FALL MONTHS OF SEPTEMBER THROUGH NOVEMBER WERE COOLER THAN
NORMAL AT 51.8 DEGREES...WHICH IS 0.9 LESS THAN THE NORMAL AVERAGE
OF 52.7 DEGREES AND THE 26TH COLDEST ON RECORD.  THE COOLER AVERAGE
TEMPERATURES WERE DRIVEN BY MUCH COOLER THAN NORMAL MINIMUM
TEMPERATURES...WHICH WERE THE 2ND COLDEST ON RECORD THROUGH THE
FALL.  MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES WERE WARMER THAN NORMAL THROUGH THE
FALL...AND WERE THE 32ND WARMEST ON RECORD.  THE TOTAL PRECIPITATION
THROUGH THE FALL WAS 3.80 INCHES...WHICH IS THE 31ST DRIEST ON
RECORD AND 2.62 INCHES BELOW NORMAL.  THE COMBINED SUMMER AND FALL
PRECIPITATION (JUNE THROUGH NOVEMBER) WAS THE 3RD DRIEST ON
RECORD...WITH 8.00 INCHES.

DECEMBER BEGAN ON A VERY MILD STREAK.  ON THE 10TH...THE HIGH
TEMPERATURE FELL TO 31 DEGREES...ENDING A STREAK OF CONSECUTIVE DAYS
WITH MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES ABOVE FREEZING AT 300. THIS WAS THE THIRD
LONGEST SUCH STREAK ON RECORD...WITH THE RECORD OF 308 DAYS ENDING
ON 12-13-1946. NO PRECIPITATION FELL UNTIL THE 14TH...ENDING A
STREAK OF 33 DAYS WITHOUT RAIN THAT IS THE 22ND LONGEST ON RECORD.
COOLER WEATHER ARRIVED ABRUPTLY ON THE 19TH TO 20TH AS A STORM
SYSTEM BROUGHT RAIN CHANGING TO SNOW IN LINCOLN.  THE STORM BROUGHT
4.5 INCHES OF SNOW TO LINCOLN AIRPORT...WITH TOTALS AROUND 6-7
INCHES ELSEWHERE IN THE LINCOLN AREA.  THIS WAS THE FIRST SNOWFALL
OF THE SEASON...BRINGING TO AN END THE LONGEST STREAK OF SNOW-FREE
DAYS ON RECORD IN LINCOLN AT 309.  WINDS GUSTING UP TO 49 MPH
BROUGHT BLIZZARD OR NEAR-BLIZZARD CONDITIONS TO THE LINCOLN AREA AS
WELL.  THE SNOWFALL OF 4.2 INCHES AS WELL AS THE LIQUID
PRECIPITATION OF 0.58 INCHES ON THE 19TH WERE BOTH DAILY RECORDS.
COOLER WEATHER STUCK THROUGH THE REST OF THE MONTH...WITH SOME
MODERATION TOWARD NEW YEARS EVE.  THE COLDEST MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE OF
THE MONTH...AND OF 2012...WAS THE 14 DEGREES OBSERVED ON BOTH
CHRISTMAS DAY AND THE 26TH.

                       2012 STATISTICS
          TEMPERATURE                   PRECIPITATION
MONTH  AVG. DEPART.  MAX  MIN     TOTAL  DEPART. SNOW/SLEET TSTORM DAYS
JAN    30.0   5.4     70    4     0.16   -0.48    1.6         0
FEB    30.7   1.7     63   -5     2.10    1.33   12.3         1
MAR    55.0  14.9     91R  18     0.89   -1.04      0         1
APR    56.0   4.4     92   26     3.49    0.78      0         6
MAY    66.9   4.6     96   39     3.00   -1.29      0         8
JUN    75.1   2.5    102   41     3.57   -0.78      0         6
JUL    83.1   5.5    105   57     0.33   -3.07      0         2
AUG    74.5  -0.8    103   44     0.30   -3.19      0         6
SEP    64.6  -1.4    102   32     1.73   -1.29      0         2
OCT    49.6  -3.6     82   20     1.92   -0.05      0         5
NOV    41.4   2.5     78    8     0.15   -1.28      T         1
DEC    27.9   1.1     68   -1     1.50    0.55    5.1         0
YEAR   54.7   3.2    105   -5    19.14   -9.81   19.0        38

           DEGREE DAYS
MONTH  HEATING  DEPART.  COOLING  DEPART.
JAN      1079    -173         0       0
FEB       991     -15         0       0
MAR       330    -443        25      24
APR       290    -127        29      16
MAY        69     -78       137      72
JUN        11      -5       322      80
JUL         0      -1       570     180
AUG         7       2       309     -15
SEP       103      11        99     -24
OCT       472      91         0     -15
NOV       702     -80         0       0
DEC      1144     -40         0       0
YEAR     5198    -858      1491     282

       WIND GUST    SEA LEVEL PRESSURE
MONTH  MAX          MAX     MIN
JAN    51           30.73   29.38
FEB    49           30.89   29.25
MAR    48           30.58   29.48
APR    54           30.41   29.24
MAY    66           30.38   29.30
JUN    63           30.24   29.47
JUL    39           30.15   29.59
AUG    43           30.25   29.68
SEP    46           30.44   29.70
OCT    56           30.57   29.33
NOV    66           30.58   29.41
DEC    49           30.57   29.41

       EXTREMES                    READING   DATE
WARMEST HIGH TEMPERATURE           105       JULY 22
COLDEST HIGH TEMPERATURE            14       DECEMBER 25, DECEMBER 26
COLDEST LOW TEMPERATURE             -5       FEBRUARY 12
WARMEST LOW TEMPERATURE             79       JUNE 27
LAST SPRING FREEZE (32 DEGREES)     31       APRIL 23
FIRST FALL FREEZE (32 DEGREES)      32       SEPTEMBER 23
HIGHEST RAINFALL                     2.75    APRIL 14
HIGHEST SNOWFALL                    11.1     FEBRUARY 4
HIGHEST SNOW DEPTH                   9       FEBRUARY 5
LAST MEASURABLE SNOW (2011-12)       1.1     FEBRUARY 13
FIRST MEASURABLE SNOW (2012-13)      4.2     DECEMBER 19
HIGHEST WIND GUST                   66       MAY 19, NOVEMBER 10
HIGHEST SURFACE PRESSURE            30.89    FEBRUARY 11
LOWEST SURFACE PRESSURE             29.24    APRIL 15

   DAILY RECORDS SET IN 2012
DATE        RECORD         READING  PREVIOUS RECORD
JANUARY 4   WARM MAX TEMP    59     59 (TIES WITH 1916)
JANUARY 5   WARM MAX TEMP    68     61 (1956)
JANUARY 30  WARM MAX TEMP    70     60 (1931)
FEBRUARY 4  RAINFALL         1.05   0.47 (1975)
FEBRUARY 4  SNOWFALL         11.1   5.7 (1971)
MARCH 13    WARM MAX TEMP    83     80 (2007)
MARCH 17    WARM MIN TEMP    60^    58 (1894)
MARCH 17    WARM AVG TEMP    71.5^  71 (1894)
MARCH 18    WARM MIN TEMP    62^    56 (1903)
MARCH 20    WARM MIN TEMP    51     49 (1894)
MARCH 26    WARM MIN TEMP    58     58 (TIES WITH 2004)
MARCH 31    WARM MAX TEMP    91     88 (1946)
APRIL 2     WARM MAX TEMP    90     88 (1928)
APRIL 14    RAINFALL         2.75   2.33 (1999)
APRIL 25    WARM MAX TEMP    92     90 (1989)
MAY 23      WARM MAX TEMP    94     94 (TIES WITH 1939)
JULY 22     WARM MAX TEMP   105     105 (TIES WITH 1941, 1934)
AUGUST 16   COLD MIN TEMP    49     49 (TIES WITH 1897)
AUGUST 17   COLD MIN TEMP    44     46 (1943)
AUGUST 18   COLD MIN TEMP    45     47 (1943)
SEPTEMBER 4 WARM MAX TEMP   102    101 (1954, 1913)
OCTOBER 5   COLD MIN TEMP    28     28 (TIES WITH 1991, 1952)
OCTOBER 6   COLD MAX TEMP    48     48 (TIES WITH 2000)
OCTOBER 10  COLD MIN TEMP    23     24 (1987)
NOVEMBER 21 WARM MAX TEMP    73     70 (1990, 1917)
DECEMBER 2  WARM MAX TEMP    68     65 (1988, 1956)
DECEMBER 19 RAINFALL         0.58   0.44 (1952)
DECEMBER 19 SNOWFALL         4.2    1.6 (1999, 1952)

^ RECORD EARLIEST READINGS TO REACH THESE TEMPERATURES

   MONTHLY RECORDS SET IN 2012
DATE        RECORD         READING  PREVIOUS RECORD
MARCH 31    WARM MAX TEMP    91     91 (TIES WITH 3-25-1907)
MARCH       WARM AVG TEMP    55.0   53.4 (1910)
MARCH       WARM MIN TEMP    40.4   39.2 (1946)
MARCH       WARM MAX TEMP    69.5   68.4 (1910)

   ANNUAL RECORDS SET IN 2012
RECORD               READING  PREVIOUS RECORD
DAYS MAX TEMP >= 70F   189    183 (1963, 1939, 1910)
DAYS MAX TEMP >= 60F   241    237 (1981)
DAYS MAX TEMP >= 50F   286    283 (1999)

   OTHER RECORDS SET IN 2012
EVENT                                RECORD     PREVIOUS RECORD
CONSECUTIVE SNOW-FREE DAYS           309        295 (ENDING 11-27-2004)